Solar Powered Water Systems (SPWS) in Humanitarian Context – Types and Configurations - This webinar, the first of the four-part webinar series, will introduce the SPWS technology focusing on different configurations such as DC vs AC, standalone vs hybrid, and submersible vs surface pumping. This also holds true for any investments in natural forest management. Present consumption and future requirements of wood in Tanzania, FO-SF/TAN 15, Technical Report 3. Sound policy can provide checks and balances, creating more balance within and between the sectors, and supporting the intended overarching goals, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Similarly, the erodable slopes laid bare by fuelwood cutting might better be replanted with an income-generating tree crop than with fuelwood species. Forest energy and economic development. Available data on wood fuel consumption are based largely on estimates, as the greater part of wood fuel production and usage occurs outside commercial channels and thus goes unrecorded. Worldwide charcoal production has increased, rising by an annual 3.7% from 1990 to reach 44 million tones in 2000 (see: FAO (2008), Forests and Energy (pdf)). Rome, FAO. Further ways to shape charcoal policies are described in the following paper: "Shaping charcoal policies: context, process, and instruments as exemplified by country cases". Substitute fuels such as kerosene must be highly subsidized to be competitive, as is the case in a number of countries, such as Senegal and Chad. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? In a recent study in east Africa, it was found that fuelwood was more attractive up to a road distance of 82 km, and charcoal beyond that distance (Earl, 1974). Oxford, Clarendon Press. The coefficient of transformation is about half (example: eucalyptus with a density of about 0.6 gives charcoal with a density of around 0.25 to 0.35).The bulk density of charcoal does not only depend on the apparent density but also on the size distribution, and is in the range of 180 - 220 kg/m3.Charcoal has a relatively low moisture content of around 3 to 10%. For example, tobacco-curing is estimated to have required 1.1 million m³ of fuelwood in Tanzania in 1970 (Openshaw, 1971) and, together with rubber preparation, nearly 300 000 m³ in Thailand in the same year. Forest and agricultural waste charcoal briquettes, with about 20% of clay, produce about 12 MJ/kg depending on the composition of charcoal. Further information on biomass charcoal briquetting for energy based income generation in rural areas can be found in the booklet Biomass Charcoal Briquetting.The GIZ Program to promote rural electrification and a sustainable supply of domestic fuel (PERACOD) in Senegal documented their experience at the Peracod website. With its advantage of increased transportability (partly offset by its bulky nature and its susceptibility to losses in handling due to pulverization), charcoal becomes increasingly attractive over longer distances. Is the main reason that wood contains a lot of water which would form unwanted vapor? MATHUR, R.S. Evidence from within countries is similar. The choice between fuelwood planting and other energy solutions could therefore change quite rapidly over time. Charcoal is not a heavy commodity but it is bulky. and OPENSHAW, K. 1972. Transforming the charcoal sector in Tanzania, Impacts of Greenhouse Gas and Particulate Emissions from Woodfuel Production and End-Use in Sub-Saharan Africa, Shaping charcoal policies: context, process, and instruments as exemplified by country cases, Viability Assessment - Production of fuel briquettes from charcoal waste in Diego, Madagascar, Kenya Charcoal Policy Handbook.pdf Kenya Charcoal Policy Handbook, https://energypedia.info/index.php?title=Charcoal_Production&oldid=299015, The Alternative Charcoal Tool: gives small and medium enterprises, policy makers as well as NGOs in developing countries insight in the potential of charcoal production from alternative feedstocks on a regional or country level. Growing fuelwood may therefore be the most viable solution for populations too poor to afford the cash outlay required for all other fuels - except organic - or for those living in areas too remote to allow economic access to commercial fuels. Present wood consumption and future requirements in Tanzania. Within the framework of meeting demand for energy with wood fuels, a number of options exist. In a study in Indonesia it was found that on the usual types of fuelwood stove 94 percent of the heat value of the wood was wasted. When a hydrocarbon fuel combusts, the C-H and C-C bonds are broken, and H-O and C=O bonds are formed instead. Furthermore, evidence-based analyses of the charcoal value chain provide the opportunity to demonstrate the regional added value of charcoal production and thus help to sensitise policy makers for a source of energy hitherto neglected & left to the informal sector. Rome, FAO. TA 1536. Residues from agriculture and forestry e.g. Other measurement problems arise from the physical characteristics of fuelwood: it is difficult to measure the volume of stacks of small, irregular pieces of wood; and the relationship between volume and weight, which can be assessed more readily, will vary, open very appreciably, with species, moisture content, etc. Other papers highlighting the importance of adopting a value chain approach include: Analysis of charcoal value chains - general considerations; and Chain Concept Note for Reader.doc Policy and Distributional Equity in Natural Resource Commodity Markets: Commodity-Chain Analysis as a Policy Tool. The costs of this supervision, and of seedling, fertilizer and other materials are fully subsidized by the Government. The renewable nature of the forest also offers potential for sustained output of wood for fuel, provided appropriate harvesting and management can be instituted before destruction reaches an irreversible point. Can you take flexeril and diclofenac together? Rome, FAO. Without coherent policies, almost all charcoal production, transportation, and distribution remains informal and unregulated – leading to inefficient and risky production methods. Efforts of this nature have often been thwarted due to an essentially negative approach to the management and control of pole and fuelwood cutting, which centres on prohibitive legislation. The income elasticity of demand is possibly slightly positive, except for the upper income classes. As the fresh air intake is located below the furnaces, the carbonization front goes downhill because the air at the top of the furnaces is consumed first. An accurate assessment would therefore require continuous of repeated measurements throughout a twelve-month period. This type of pattern has been reported from many other areas. The best known industrial processes are slow pyrolysis and supra-carbonization. VELTKAMP, J.J. 1963. Wood can be used much more efficiently, existing fuelwood forests can be managed more productively, the supply base can be expanded by first converting wood into charcoal, more fuelwood can be grown or can be produced in conjunction with other crops. In the course of the five to ten years that it will take for a fuelwood plantation to produce wood of harvestable size, it might be possible to raise incomes in a particular area to the level where kerosene or some other commercial fuel could be used. This compares with roughly 150 million m³ used annually in developed countries. FO:DP/NIR/64/516, Project working document, Samaru, Nigeria, FAO. Present wood consumption and future requirements in Uganda, Report No. It also tends to put an increasing premium on other, more accessible, sorts of wood, such as tree crops, logging residues, processing residues, and used wood. Energy density is the amount of energy that can be stored in a given mass of a substance or system. The production process does not contaminate soil or air. It can be used, and created, with very little in the way of capital expenditure, with no outlay of foreign exchange and with easily acquired skills. Was Greta Van Susteren a defense attorney in the OJ Simpson case? Though of much smaller magnitude than household use, wood fuel for processing and service activities in developing countries is still very substantial, accounting for between 2 and 15 percent of total use in the countries in Africa and Asia where surveys have been carried out.
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